Urinary tract infection (UTI). Diagnosis and treatment

Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the infection of the urinary tract by different bacteria’s and rarely by fungi. UTI can be diagnosed with the presence of significant bacteria in urine with associated clinical signs and symptoms of UTI.

Diagnosis of Urinary tract infection (UTI):

To diagnose UTI, urine routine microscopic examination, urine culture and dipstick test is performed. Imaging studies such as x-ray, ultrasound is performed in cases of upper urinary tract infection that is pyelonephritis.

Pyuria (pus in the urine) is seen in the routine microscopic examination of urine and it is one of the best indicators of UTI. Positive urine dipstick test occurs in UTI. Microscopic hematuria is also seen in half of the cases.

Blood analysis shows either leukocytosis or leucopenia.

Treatment of urinary tract infection (UTI):

Urinary tract infection can be successfully treated with the proper use of antibiotics and drinking plenty of water. Since drinking a lot of water increases the urination frequency, frequent micturition helps in flushing out the bacteria’s from the urinary tract. So, drink around 3-4 liters of water per day.

The first choice agents for treating uncomplicated UTI are nitrofurantoin, trimethoprim, fosfomycin.

Antibiotics are given empirically according to the local resistance. Some of the commonly used antibiotics are norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, amoxiclav, cefdinir, cefpodoxime, etc. Drug and dosing vary in pregnant and children.

There are many other drugs used in UTI. Here, we have mentioned only a few antibiotics that are commonly used. It’s solely for education purpose only. Don’t use any medication without confirmed diagnosis and without doctor’s prescription.