Around 80% of the people in the world experience back pain or will experience back pain at some time during their life. But fortuantely, in 70% of these people, it subsides itself within a month. But still there are chances of recurrence of pain.
It's no doubt that the back pain is a price mankind has to pay for their upright posture. Even though the sepcific cause of most back pain is still not clear. It depends on a lot of factors like age ( usually back pain is more common among old age people), sex, job of the person, lifestyle, and many more things.
Even though some causes are idiopathic( meaning of unknown origin) , most of the causes of back pain are:
Inborn defects affecting the back bone
These are the congenital defects occuring in the bacbone which are present from birth.
Vertebral column or backbone is the major supporting structure in our body, it holds the head and connects the head to the lower part of the body. Backbone is not a single set of bone but instead it is a collection of different vertebraes forming a colum known as vertebral colum( or simple backbone). Through the canal present inside the backbone passes a very important structure called spinal cord which consists of collection of different nerves supplying various parts of our body.
so any inborn defects occuring in the back bone affects the spinal cord, which is why the back pain occurs in this case. Though there might be other symptoms like paresthesia of the limbs , paralysis too. But most commonly there will be back pain.
Some of the common inborn defects causing back pain are spina bifida, lumbar scoliosis, spondylolysis, spondylolisthesis, transitional vertebrae, facet tropism.
I can bet everyone knows this cause. Any trauma or any accidents affecting the back is the most commonest cause of the back pain. Back strains which arises from the daily routine activities are very common cause of back pain among athletes, tall and thin people, those people whose job requires long standing hours, bad sitting postures, weight lifters.
Though back strain is very common in daily activity, different serious accidents like car accidents , bike accidents leading to the fractures of the back bone ( vertebral column) is also without doubt a cause of back pain.
Diseases and inflammatory conditions
Different diseases are also associated with the back pain. The most common among them is tuberculosis( spinal tuberculosis). Though TB is not very common is developed world, it is still the major problem in the developing and poor countries.
Another common disease causing back pain is ankolysing spondilitis. This is specially seen among young males where they present with complains of worst pain in the morning and gradually it fades away with walking some distance.
This is the most common cause of back pain in elderly people. it is a degenerative disease affecting mostly elderly people.osteoarthiritis is associated with the slow destruction and degeeration of the synovial joints. Since our back bone is made up of collection of vertebrae and all of these bones are interconnected with each other, any degeneration of the joints can lead to the malformation which results in back pain.
It is the narrowing of the spinal column which causes the compression of the spinal cord. Thought it can be located to certain regions of the spinal column, it might occur in the whole spinal column too. The narrowing may give rise to pressure or tension on the nerves. As a result of which there will be pain radiating down the lower limbs which mostly occurs while the person is walking.
It is a condition when the intervertebral disc prolapses and there is protusion of the content of the intervertebral disc which causes the compression of the spinal cord. Though the causes of the disc prolapse might vary. It commonly results from lifting heavy weight, traumas.
It is a metabolic disease characterised by decrease in bone density due to decrease in the bone mass. When the density of the bone decreases it becomes more fragile to traumas and fractures. Causes include dietary insufficiency, different hormonal difficiency, drugs intake,etc.
It is the adult counterpart of rickets. Osteomalcia means softening of bone primarily due to vitamin d deficiency. This results in failure to replace the turnover of calcium and phosphorous in the organic part of the bone. Hence, the bone is demineralised and replaced by soft osteoid tissue.
Back pain due to genitourinary disease
This type of pain is also called as referred pain. Though there is no direct affection to the back bone , it occurs as a result of irritation of the nerves due to the disease present in the genitourinary system. Some of the common urinary disease causing back pain are: kidney stones, urinary stones( stones in the urinary tract), prostatitis( in males), urethritis, etc.
Back pain due to gynaecological disease( only females)
Most of the gynaecological diseases are associated with back pain. Some of the common disease causing back pain are: polyps of the uterus, endocericvitis, hyperplasia of endometrium, etc.
sometimes pregnancy too can cause back pain in pregnant women.
Postural back pain (Incorrect posture of the body)
I already meintioned , back pain is the price mankind has to pay for their upright posture. Different occupational habits like jobs requiring sitting in the chair for a long time or jobs where you have to stand for a long time can cause strain to the back resulting in back pain.
Most of the lean and tall people , they bent which can also be called habitual bad posture or even most of the people bend their back while sitting which is not correct psoture of the back bone. So it can easily result in the problems with back.
Tumors of the spine and spinal cord
Though not very common, cancer can also be linked with the back pain. Different benign tumors like osteoma of the vertebral column, meningioma( tumor of the layer covering the spinal cord and brain), myelomas, can be a cause of the back pain.
The reasons of the back pain can vary in each individual. Some back pains might be of unknown origin and just goes away on its own. Some people have back pain due to cold( like myself) and it goes away when they heat the area.
So, what I meant is I know the list I have mentioned above is not enough, it doesn't contain everything but it contains most of the causes of the back pain. If you are one of the sufferers of the back pain, please feel free to comment and share your experience. Thank you.